زمان تقریبی مطالعه: ۱۵ دقیقه
Read the text below and answer Questions 8–14.
Minimal impact bushwalking
Responsible campers observe minimal impact bushwalking practices. This is a code of ethics and behaviour aimed at preserving the natural beauty of bushwalking areas.
Good planning is the key to safe and successful camping trips. Obtaining a camping permit in advance of leaving to camp out overnight in a national park is obligatory. Bookings are also compulsory for some parks. There could be limits on group sizes in some parks. Occasionally campsites may be closed owing to bushfire danger or for other reasons. Always obtain permission from the owner prior to crossing private property.
As well as your usual bushwalking gear, you will need the right equipment for camping.
A fuel stove and fuel for cooking is essential: not only is it safer, faster and cleaner; but it is easier to use in wet weather. It is recommended that you pitch a free-standing tent which requires few pegs and therefore has less ecological impact. Take a sleeping mat, if you have one, to put your sleeping bag on for a more comfortable night’s sleep. You will also need a hand trowel to bury human waste – for proper sanitation and hygiene.
The traditional campfire actually causes a huge amount of environmental damage. If you gather firewood, you are removing the vital habitat of insects, reptiles, birds and small mammals. When campfires lead to bushfires, they create enormous danger to native bush inhabitants and bushwalkers alike and result in destruction of the environment. Under no circumstances should you light a fire in the bush.
Erect your tent at an existing site if possible; otherwise try to find a spot where you won’t damage vegetation. Never cut branches or move rocks or disturb the soil unnecessarily. Aim to leave your campsite as you found it or even cleaner.
Remove all rubbish – carry it out with you. Don’t attempt to burn or bury rubbish because this creates a fire hazard and/or disturbs the soil. Animals can dig up buried rubbish and scatter it about. Never feed the local wildlife – carry out all food scraps as these disturb the natural nutrient balance and can create weed problems.
Keep on the track. Wear footwear suitable for the terrain. Take a map.
You were listening to Lmap podcast.